Trauma: includes T12 burst fracture with bony retropulsion, spinal canal stenosis, and focal kyphosis.
Spondylolisthesis: includes L4-L5 grade 2 anterolisthesis.
Spondylosis: degenerative spine disease present throughout, hypertrophied facets, L5-S1 disc collapse, large lateral osteophytes.
Suggested add-ons: lumbar nerve roots, thecal sac, ligamentum flavum.
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T10-Pelvis model for open posterior surgical approaches.